FUNCTIONALITY OF INGREDIENTS

Good quality breads can only come from good quality ingredients. A deep understanding, therefore, of properties and functions of each major component of bread dough is very useful for bakers and bakery owners. This issue of Baking Made Perfect will discuss about the essential and enriching ingredients in bread making- how each affect bread quality.

ESSENTIAL BREAD INGREDIENTS - are key ingredients in bread making

INGREDIENTS FUNCTIONS DETAILS
FLOUR
  • Structure
  • Gas retention
Bread flour must have protein content of about 12-13%. Protein is responsible for developing gluten-a complex matrix with balanced elasticity and extensibility required to retain gas in dough system. Strong and well-developed gluten results in good volume and uniform grain.
WATER
  • Hydration
Water facilitates proper blending of ingredients. This makes possible the start of the complex reactions in the dough: gluten development; starch gelatinization; yeast reproduction; enzyme activity; dissolution of solid ingredients such as sugar and salt and dough temperature control.
SALT
  • Taste
  • Strengthener
Salt contributes to flavor of bakery products. It also has strengthening effect on gluten that when used in high level, dough will become stiff. Salt also retards yeast activity thus decreasing dough fermentation rate.
SALT
  • Taste
  • Strengthener
Salt contributes to flavor of bakery products. It also has strengthening effect on gluten that when used in high level, dough will become stiff. Salt also retards yeast activity thus decreasing dough fermentation rate.
YEAST
  • Gas production
Yeast produces CO2 gas via fermentation. During fermentation, yeast converts sugar (glucose) into the following products: 1. gas – to leaven or make the dough rise
2. acid and alcohol – to mellow the dough for better gas retention; to produce flavor compounds for breads
3. heat – speeds up enzymatic reactions in the dough Yeast activity is influenced by amount of sugar, salt and mold inhibitor, temperature and amount of water. Yeast is most active at 28-35oC and is killed in the oven at about 55-65oC.

ENRICHING BREAD INGREDIENTS - are optional ingredients which improve flavor, softness and color of baked bread

INGREDIENTS FUNCTIONS DETAILS
SUGAR
  • Energy source of yeast
  • Taste
  • Color
  • Softness
1. Glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose are sugar forms that are readily fermented by yeast to produce gas and flavor compounds.
2. By caramelization and Maillard reactions, sugar produce brown color of baked bread.
3. The hygroscopicity of sugar (ability to absorb and retain moisture) accounts for its softening effect on bread.
MILK
  • Taste
  • Nutrition
  • Color
  • Softness
1. Milk improves flavor and nutrition value of breads.
2. Lactose in milk also undergoes browning reaction thereby imparting color in baked bread.
3. The hygroscopicity of milk results in increased water absorption and softer breads.
EGGS
  • Taste
  • Nutrition
  • Color
  • Softness
1. Egg improves flavor and nutrition value of breads.
2. Egg yolk enriches crust and crumb color. It contains lecithin-an emulsifier which can soften breads.
3. Moisture content of eggs (about 75%) contributes to softness and retard staling.
FAT
  • FAT
Fats shorten gluten strands by inhibiting maximum water absorption by flour. This results in softer structure. Fats also function for lubrication and emulsification to improve dough consistency. Shortening, margarine, oil and butter are the fats commonly used for bakery products.

Get Daily Updates

Magnolia Products


All Purpose Flour

Count on Magnolia All Purpose Flour
to help you cook truly delightful meals
- every time! know more...